The majority of the risk at level crossings is connected with the behaviour of level crossing users. One element of the risk that is not connected directly with user behaviour is the risk from Signals Passed At Danger, where a signal protects the level crossing.

Sotera has developed a risk assessment tool for the assessment of SPAD risk and an optioneering framework to consider risk reducing options to help ensure risk is reduced to an appropriate level by accounting for the features of the signal, crossing operation and local factors.

The safe overrun distance between the signal and level crossing is also relevant to compliance with industry standards.

The Overall Process

The risk model assesses the risk from a wide range of data connected with:

  • The level crossing and its operations
  • The signal on approach to the crossing
  • The existing safety controls
  • The level of use of the crossing
  • Public misuse factors
  • Local environmental and road layout factors.

Once the data is entered or obtained from other models the risk is calculated and a wide range of potential risk reduction measures can be assessed to determine those that are required to reduce risk so far as is reasonably practicable. The model also can be used to apply for derogations to standards and also helps ensure consistency in the risk assessment of this important area.

Approach To Assessment – Diagram